Sonochemistry: An emerging approach to fabricate biopolymer cross-linked emulsions for the delivery of bioactive compounds
Chen Tan, Yuqian Zhu, Hamed Ahari, Seid Mahdi Jafari , Baoguo Sun, Jing Wang
Sonochemistry shows remarkable potential in the synthesis or modification of new micro/nanomaterials, particularly the cross-linked emulsions for drug delivery. However, the trend of utilizing sonochemical emulsions for delivery of food-derived bioactive compounds has been just started. The extension of sonochemistry as a tool for engineering bioactive delivery systems will make the approach more universal and greatly increase its applications in the food industry. This review summarizes different types of biopolymeric cross-linked emulsions (CLEs) synthesized via sonochemical approach, including CLEs, surface-modified CLEs, cross-linked high internal phase emulsions, and some novel systems templated on CLEs. Special emphasis is directed toward the crosslinking mechanisms of biopolymers at the oil-water interfaces under acoustic cavitation and the physicochemical principles underlying sonochemical fabrication. We also highlight the advantages and challenges associated with the delivery performance of each system for bioactive compounds. The potential in delivering bioactives using sonochemical emulsions has not been fully reached. There are still a number of issues that need to be overcome, including low cross linking degree of biopolymers, degradation of bioactives in sonochemical process, and unclear biological fate of encapsulated bioactive compounds. This review may guide future trends in exploring efficient sonochemical strategies and multifunctional delivery systems for food applications.